Peter Schiff Says Silver Is The New Bitcoin After Crazy 90

How Blockchain.com harms the cryptocurrency community

How Blockchain.com harms the cryptocurrency community
This post has been written to draw Blockchain.com's attention to the issues of its product.
Blockchain.com (formerly Blockchain.info) was founded in 2011 and with no doubt has helped the Bitcoin community to create a block explorer and has proven itself as a valuable service. Millions of people from all over the world use their wallet. However, time goes on, Bitcoin develops, but one of the main cryptocurrency companies not only slows down the process of its development, but also discredits the usability of cryptocurrencies. Why is that? We have tried to explain that in this post.
https://preview.redd.it/i0yk7qraqkw41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=963dc18551d2900bca456bfa3a6cfd3636c7c93c

1. Lack of Segwit Address Support

This is the most painful problem for our service. To receive cryptocurrency we use segwit addresses by default. If a customer contacts our support, we can of course change an address in an order to P2SH (the one that begins with number "3"), but it reduces the usability of the service. Why don't we use P2SH by default? It is less beneficial both for us and for our client, as the cost of the consolidation of the transaction is taken into account when calculating the exchange rate. With a high network load and with orders for a small amount, the commission becomes significant. To compare — segwit addresses (or Bech32 that starts with "bc1") are 15% more advantageous than P2SH.
Segwit (Segregated Witness) was activated in 2017. At the end of the same year the CEO of Blockchain.info announced its support starting from (most likely) 2018. We can understand certain fears at the beginning of the way, as the company's security system is for sure not that bad. However more than 2 years have passed since then and that is a lot for the crypto world.

2. Using Legacy (P2PKH) Addresses Only

As of now only a P2PKH address (that starts with number "1") is used in the Blockchain.com wallet to receive cryptocurrency. Why is that bad? It is unfavorable for the users of this wallet. They spend 29% more than those using P2SH addresses.

3. Confusion with PAX and USD Digital

Changing the names of the currencies from one to another only in a Blockchain.com wallet is a rather strange decision. The key problem is that nowhere in the wallet are there any clues that this is an ERC-20 PAX token on the Ethereum blockchain. New wallet users will most likely be confused by this.
We sometimes get questions: "do we have USD Digital to buy or to sell?" and our technical support is forced to explain that it is PAX.

4. Incompetence of mobile application developers

In fact, this post was inspired by this particular problem. We will not focus on performance or shortcomings, we will just tell you about the main issue.
It is worth starting with questions. What problem does a mobile application solve when a person needs to pay for something? What is the best way to fill in the recipient address and the payment amount on the smartphone? Answer: QR code.
Scanning the QR code in this application is done not just badly, but also in such a way that creates maximum number of problems for a user.
The fact is that in the Android application when scanning code with the bitcoin:
?amount=, the value of the amount to be inserted in the corresponding field may differ from the encoded value by 1-100 Satoshi! Our team simply does not understand how this was implemented.
Do not believe? Try it yourself. Amount to insert — 0.00143452 BTC
bitcoin:3LAxDr5CxwBJT4tCejV8rpAXETz7bUH3tG?amount=0.00143452
After receiving information on such a problem from our users, we began to monitor updates to this application. After 2 updates had come out, the problem was not fixed.
And what about iOS? When scanning a QR code with a sum in iOS , the sum value is simply not inserted into the field! No comments. Bravo!
Blockchain.com wallet has different currencies, not just Bitcoin. Let's try Ethereum. You want to scan QR codes for Ethereum payment with the relevant sum? There is no such possibility. The application will respond with an "Invalid address" to all such codes:
  • eth:
    ?amount=
  • ether:
    ?amount=
  • ethereum:
    ?amount=
For BitcoinCash, the task of identifying the amount in the line is also an impossible task. Line with wallet bitcoincash:qpk0689rt3xkzlw8ap4yy72amp2zpws6zujkcgavptconsidered true, but with the amount bitcoincash:qpk0689rt3xkzlw8ap4yy72amp2zpws6zujkcgavpt?amount=0.1 — "Invalid address"
But there are applications that understand all such formats, or at least one of them. The string parsing function is pretty trivial and should not be a problem for the developer.
This article has been written based on the experience of using the application of the members of our team (who have used it for many years) and our users.
We encourage Blockchain.com to fix at least 3 of the 4 problems that we covered in this article. We still hope that the company will work on the bugs and will earn back trust of its users.
In the meantime — use other applications! ;)
The post is published on our blog:https://fixedfloat.com/blog/guides/how-blockchain-com-harms
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Crypto Research expects multiple Bitcoin growth by 2025–2030

Experts from Crypto Research predicted how many years investors should wait for a multiple increase in the rate of the first cryptocurrency and what would happen to altcoins in this case.
Bitcoin can rise up to $341 thousand by 2025, and up to $397 thousand by 2030. The calculations are based on the concept of the total volume of target market (Total Addressable Market), which includes money transfers, offshore accounts, savings, online transactions, cryptocurrency trading, blockchain games, consumer loans, reserve currencies, etc.
The researchers are sure that in case Bitcoin grows, altcoins will also rise in price. According to their forecasts, in five years the Ethereum rate may rise by 1,500% and exceed $3,500, and the cost of Bitcoin Cash – by 3,000%, up to $6,700. The greatest growth is expected from the Stellar token (XLM) – by 3800%, to $2.40.
In March, a similar forecast was provided by analysts at the Kraken exchange. According to their calculations, the rate of the first cryptocurrency can rise to $350,000 by 2044. This will happen as soon as the younger generation invests about $1 trillion in digital assets.
According to cryptanalyst Willy Woo, a new “exponential” BTC rally could begin in July. This is indicated by his new price model of Bitcoin.
Meanwhile, a well-known Bitcoin critic Peter Schiff rules out the possibility of repeating the BTC rally. According to him, in 2020 gold will rise in price to a new historical maximum, while Bitcoin no longer has the strength to grow.
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to u/CoinjoyAssistant [link] [comments]

ECDSA In Bitcoin

Digital signatures are considered the foundation of online sovereignty. The advent of public-key cryptography in 1976 paved the way for the creation of a global communications tool – the Internet, and a completely new form of money – Bitcoin. Although the fundamental properties of public-key cryptography have not changed much since then, dozens of different open-source digital signature schemes are now available to cryptographers.

How ECDSA was incorporated into Bitcoin

When Satoshi Nakamoto, a mystical founder of the first crypto, started working on Bitcoin, one of the key points was to select the signature schemes for an open and public financial system. The requirements were clear. An algorithm should have been widely used, understandable, safe enough, easy, and, what is more important, open-sourced.
Of all the options available at that time, he chose the one that met these criteria: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, or ECDSA.
At that time, native support for ECDSA was provided in OpenSSL, an open set of encryption tools developed by experienced cipher banks in order to increase the confidentiality of online communications. Compared to other popular schemes, ECDSA had such advantages as:
These are extremely useful features for digital money. At the same time, it provides a proportional level of security: for example, a 256-bit ECDSA key has the same level of security as a 3072-bit RSA key (Rivest, Shamir и Adleman) with a significantly smaller key size.

Basic principles of ECDSA

ECDSA is a process that uses elliptic curves and finite fields to “sign” data in such a way that third parties can easily verify the authenticity of the signature, but the signer himself reserves the exclusive opportunity to create signatures. In the case of Bitcoin, the “data” that is signed is a transaction that transfers ownership of bitcoins.
ECDSA has two separate procedures for signing and verifying. Each procedure is an algorithm consisting of several arithmetic operations. The signature algorithm uses the private key, and the verification algorithm uses only the public key.
To use ECDSA, such protocol as Bitcoin must fix a set of parameters for the elliptic curve and its finite field, so that all users of the protocol know and apply these parameters. Otherwise, everyone will solve their own equations, which will not converge with each other, and they will never agree on anything.
For all these parameters, Bitcoin uses very, very large (well, awesomely incredibly huge) numbers. It is important. In fact, all practical applications of ECDSA use huge numbers. After all, the security of this algorithm relies on the fact that these values are too large to pick up a key with a simple brute force. The 384-bit ECDSA key is considered safe enough for the NSA's most secretive government service (USA).

Replacement of ECDSA

Thanks to the hard work done by Peter Wuille (a famous cryptography specialist) and his colleagues on an improved elliptical curve called secp256k1, Bitcoin's ECDSA has become even faster and more efficient. However, ECDSA still has some shortcomings, which can serve as a sufficient basis for its complete replacement. After several years of research and experimentation, a new signature scheme was established to increase the confidentiality and efficiency of Bitcoin transactions: Schnorr's digital signature scheme.
Schnorr's signature takes the process of using “keys” to a new level. It takes only 64 bytes when it gets into the block, which reduces the space occupied by transactions by 4%. Since transactions with the Schnorr signature are the same size, this makes it possible to pre-calculate the total size of the part of the block that contains such signatures. A preliminary calculation of the block size is the key to its safe increase in the future.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to btc [link] [comments]

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  198. Introduction to Strategic Public Relations: Digital, Global, and Socially Responsible Communication, 1st Edition: Janis Teruggi Page & Lawrence J. Parnell
  199. Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide, 2nd Edition: Larry Trivieri & John W. Anderson & Burton Goldberg
  200. How Full Is Your Bucket?, Anniversary Edition: Tom Rath & Donald O. Clifton
  201. MATLAB: A Practical Introduction to Programming and Problem Solving, 5th Edition: Stormy Attaway
  202. Anatomical Landmark Palpation Video and Book, 1st Edition: Paula Maxwell
  203. Common Stocks and Uncommon Profits and Other Writings, 2nd Edition: Philip A. Fisher & Kenneth L. Fisher
  204. Elements of Physical Chemistry, 7th Edition: Peter Atkins & Julio de Paula
  205. Managing and Using Information Systems: A Strategic Approach, 7th Edition: Keri E. Pearlson & Carol S. Saunders & Dennis F. Galletta
  206. Mediation: Empowerment in Conflict Management, 2nd Edition: Kathy Domenici & Stephen W. Littlejohn
  207. Observing and Recording the Behavior of Young Children, 6th Edition: Dorothy H. Cohen & Virginia Stern & Nancy Balaban & Nancy Gropper
  208. Shortell and Kaluzny’s Healthcare Management: Organization Design and Behavior, 7th Edition: Lawton Burns & Elizabeth Bradley & Bryan Weiner
  209. Practical Business Math Procedures, 13th Edition: Jeffrey Slater & Sharon Wittry
  210. Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 3rd Edition: M. Anne Katzenberg & Anne L. Grauer
  211. Developmental Mathematics: Basic Mathematics and Algebra, 4th Edition: Margaret L. Lial & John Hornsby & Terry McGinnis & Stanley A. Salzman & Diana L. Hestwood
  212. Exercises for the Shoulder to Hand: Release Your Kinetic Chain: Brian James Abelson & Kamali Thara Abelson & Lavanya Balasubramaniyam
  213. Career Theories and Models at Work: Ideas for Practice: Nancy Arthur & Roberta Neault & Mary McMahon
  214. Culture, Health and Illness, (Hodder Arnold Publication), 5th Edition: Cecil G. Helman
  215. Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, 13th Edition: Barbara M. Newman & Philip R. Newman
  216. Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World, 4th Edition: Barbara Miller
  217. American Foreign Policy Since World War II, 21st Edition: Steven W. Hook & John W. Spanier
  218. World Politics: Trend and Transformation, 2016 - 2017, 16th Edition: Shannon L. Blanton & Charles W. Kegley
  219. Marketing Metaphoria: What Deep Metaphors Reveal About the Minds of Consumers: Gerald Zaltman & Lindsay H. Zaltman
  220. Building on the Strengths of Students with Special Needs: How to Move Beyond Disability Labels in the Classroom: Toby Karten
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  222. THINK Public Relations, 2nd Edition: Dennis L. Wilcox & Glen T. Cameron & Bryan H. Reber & Jae-Hwa Shin
  223. An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, 6th Edition: Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Whishaw & G. Campbell Teskey
  224. Physiology, 6th Edition: Linda S. Costanzo
  225. Stats: Data and Models, 5th Edition: Richard D. De Veaux & Paul F. Velleman & David E. Bock
  226. Through Women's Eyes: An American History With Documents, 5th Edition: Ellen DuBois & Lynn Dumenil
  227. Intermediate Accounting: Volume 2, 3rd Edition: Kin Lo & George Fisher
  228. Disciplined Entrepreneurship: 24 Steps to a Successful Startup, 1st Edition: Bill Aulet
  229. People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory, 15th Edition: Brian M. Fagan & Nadia Durrani
  230. The Economics of Health Reconsidered, 4th Edition: Thomas Rice
  231. Psychology, 8th Edition: Saundra Hockenbury & Susan Nolan
  232. Exploring Biological Anthropology: The Essentials, 4th Edition: Craig Stanford & John S. Allen & Susan C. Antón
  233. Using MIS, 11th Edition: David M. Kroenke & Randall J. Boyle
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  235. Classical Mythology in Context, 1st Edition: Lisa Maurizio
  236. The Nature and Properties of Soils, 15th Edition: Ray R. Weil & Nyle C. Brady
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  238. Conflict Management for Managers: Resolving Workplace, Client, and Policy Disputes, 1st Edition: Susan S. Raines
  239. Strategic Compensation: A Human Resource Management Approach, 9th Edition: Joseph J. Martocchio
  240. Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 15th Edition: William Mendenhall & Robert J. Beaver & Barbara M. Beaver
  241. Demonstrating to Win!: The Indispensable Guide for Demonstrating Software: Robert Riefstahl
  242. Essential Organic Chemistry, 3rd Edition: Paula Yurkanis Bruice
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  246. Informatics and Nursing, 6th Edition: Jeanne Sewell
  247. Operating System Concepts, 10th Edition: Abraham Silberschatz & Greg Gagne & Peter B. Galvin
  248. The Career Fitness Program: Exercising Your Options, 11th Edition: Diane Sukiennik & Lisa Raufman
  249. Dutton's Orthopaedic: Examination, Evaluation and Intervention, 5th Edition: Mark Dutton
  250. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition: American Psychological Association
  251. Sports Economics, 1st Edition: David Berri
  252. Health and Health Care Delivery in Canada, 2nd Edition: Valerie D. Thompson
  253. The Psychology Major's Handbook, 5th Edition: Tara L. Kuther
  254. Cardiovascular Physiology, 9th Edition: David E. Mohrman & Lois Jane Heller
  255. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition: James Petersen & Dorothy Sack & Robert E. Gabler
  256. Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition: Joyce E. Dains & Linda Ciofu Baumann & Pamela Scheibel
  257. An Introduction to the Ancient World, 3rd Edition: Lukas de Blois & R.J. van der Spek
  258. University Physics for the Physical and Life Sciences: Volume II, 1st Edition: Philip R. Kesten & David L. Tauck
  259. Cognitive Psychology, 7th Edition: Robert J. Sternberg & Karin Sternberg
  260. Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, & Management, 8th Edition: Barbara Cherry & Susan R. Jacob
  261. How Psychology Works: The Facts Visually Explained, 1st Edition: Dorling Kindersley
  262. Cases in Health Care Marketing, 1st Edition: John L. Fortenberry
  263. Understanding Vineyard Soils, 2nd Edition: Robert E. White
  264. Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering, 6th Edition: William Smith
  265. Cultural Intimacy: Social Poetics and the Real Life of States, Societies, and Institutions, 3rd Edition: Michael Herzfeld
  266. Reading Sounds: Closed-Captioned Media and Popular Culture, 1st Edition: Sean Zdenek
  267. Behavioral Problems in Geography Revisited, 1st Edition: Kevin R Cox & Reginald Golledge
  268. The Economics of Recreation, Leisure and Tourism, 6th Edition: John Tribe
  269. HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations: Nancy Duarte
  270. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, Volume 1, Seagull Sixth Edition: Eric Foner
  271. Yoder-Wise's Leading and Managing in Canadian Nursing, 2nd Edition: Janice Waddell & Nancy Walton
  272. Introduction to Econometrics, 4th Edition: James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson
  273. Statistical Physics, 2nd Edition: Franz Mandl
  274. Orthopedic Physical Assessment (Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation), 6th Edition: David J. Magee
  275. International Law for International Relations, 1st Edition: Basak Cali
  276. Omt Review: A Comprehensive Review in Osteopathic Medicine, 3rd Edition: Robert G. Savarese
  277. Health Research Methods: A Canadian Perspective: Kate Bassil
  278. IT Essentials Companion Guide v7, 1st Edition: Cisco Networking Academy
  279. Wright & Leahey's Nurses and Families: A Guide to Family Assessment and Intervention, 7th Edition: Zahra Shajani & Diana Snell
  280. The Power of Framing: Creating the Language of Leadership, 2nd Edition: Gail T. Fairhurst
  281. Agile Estimating and Planning (Robert C. Martin Series), 1st Edition: Mike Cohn
  282. Database Systems: The Complete Book, 2nd Edition: Hector Garcia-Molina & Jeffrey D. Ullman & Jennifer Widom
  283. Attacking Faulty Reasoning, 7th Edition: T. Edward Damer
  284. Biology: The Essentials, 3rd Edition: Mariëlle Hoefnagels
  285. Becoming a Professional Life Coach: Lessons from the Institute of Life Coach Training, 2nd Edition: Diane S. Menendez & Patrick Williams
  286. Essentials of Nursing Leadership & Management, 7th Edition: Sally A Weiss & Ruth M Tappen & Karen Grimley
  287. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing, 11th Edition: Gary Colombo & Robert Cullen & Bonnie Lisle
  288. The Business of Media Distribution: Monetizing Film, TV, and Video Content in an Online World, 3rd Edition: Jeffrey C. Ulin
  289. Macroeconomics: Canada in the Global Environment, 10th Edition: Robin Bade Michael Parkin
  290. Statistics in Action: Understanding a World of Data, 2nd Edition: Ann E. Watkins & Richard L. Scheaffer & George W. Cobb
  291. Clinical Handbook of Couple Therapy, 5th Edition: Alan S. Gurman & Jay L. Lebow & Douglas K. Snyder
  292. Occupational Safety and Health in the Emergency Services, 4th Edition: James S. Angle
  293. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America, 5th Edition: Eduardo Bonilla-Silva
  294. Handbook for the Humanities, 1st Edition: Janetta Rebold Benton & Robert DiYanni
  295. A Comprehensive Guide to Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2nd Edition: Michael L. Wehmeyer & Ivan Brown & Maire Percy & W.L. Alan Fung & Karrie A. Shogren
  296. Shelly Cashman Series Microsoft Office 365 & Office 2016: Introductory, 1st Edition: Misty E. Vermaat & Steven M. Freund & Corinne Hoisington & Eric Schmieder & Mary Z. Last
  297. Pediatric Primary Care: Practice Guidelines for Nurses, 4th Edition: Beth Richardson
  298. Abnormal Psychology, 8th Edition: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
  299. Assessment is Essential, 1st Edition: Susan Green & Robert Johnson
  300. Economics, 19th Edition: Paul Samuelson & William Nordhaus
  301. CompTIA Security+ Practice Tests: Exam SY0-501, 1st Edition: S. Russell Christy & Chuck Easttom
  302. Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements, 6th Edition: Richard S. Figliola & Donald E. Beasley
  303. Looking at Philosophy: The Unbearable Heaviness of Philosophy Made Lighter, 5th Edition: Donald Palmer
  304. Marketing, 4th Canadian Edition: Dhruv Grewal & Michael Levy & Shirley Lichti
  305. Social Psychology of Emotion, 1st Edition: Darren Ellis
  306. Rainbow's End: The Crash of 1929 (Pivotal Moments in American History), 1st Edition: Maury Klein
  307. Your Office: Microsoft Access 2016 Comprehensive, 1st Edition: Amy S. Kinser & Brant Moriarity & Eric Kinser & Diane Kosharek
  308. Zero Trust Networks: Building Secure Systems in Untrusted Networks, 1st Edition: Evan Gilman & Doug Barth
  309. Investment Valuation: Tools and Techniques for Determining the Value of Any Asset, 3rd Edition: Aswath Damodaran
  310. Essentials of Accounting, 11th Edition: Leslie K. Breitner & Robert N. Anthony
  311. Essentials of Health Information Management: Principles and Practices, 2nd Edition: Michelle Green & Mary Jo Bowie
  312. Financial Accounting, 10th Edition: Robert Libby & Patricia Libby & Frank Hodge
  313. Clinical Psychology: Science, Practice, and Diversity, 5th Edition: Andrew M. Pomerantz
  314. An Introduction to American Law, 3rd Edition: Daniel Rosen & Bruce Aronson & David G. Litt
  315. The Intelligent Investor, Revised Edition: Benjamin Graham & Jason Zweig & Warren E. Buffett
  316. Introduction to Neuropsychopharmacology, 1st Edition: Leslie Iversen & Susan Iversen & Floyd E. Bloom & Robert H. Roth
  317. Study Guide for Pharmacology and the Nursing Process, 9th Edition: Linda Lane Lilley & Julie S. Snyder & Shelly Rainforth Collins
  318. Corporate Computer Security, 4th Edition: Randy J. Boyle & Raymond R. Panko
  319. Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction, 4th Edition: David Poole
  320. The One-Hour Activist: The 15 Most Powerful Actions You Can Take to Fight for the Issues and Candidates You Care About, 1st Edition: Christopher Kush
  321. Likeable Social Media, Revised and Expanded, 2nd Edition: Dave Kerpen
  322. Essential MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists, 7th Edition: Brian Hahn & Daniel Valentine
  323. History and Systems of Psychology, 7th Edition: James F. Brennan & Keith A. Houde
  324. Pain-Related Fear:Exposure-Based Treatment of Chronic Pain: Exposure-Based Treatment, 1st Edition: Johan W. Vlaeyen & Stephen J. Morley & Steven J. Linton & Katja Boersma & Jeroen de Jong
  325. Introductory Medical-Surgical Nursing, 12th Edition: Barbara Kuhn Timby & Nancy E. Smith
  326. Interviewing in Action in a Multicultural World, 5th Edition: Bianca Cody Murphy & Carolyn Dillon
  327. Business Law: Text & Cases, An Accelerated Course: 14th Edition: Roger LeRoy Miller
  328. The Ethics of Coaching Sports: Moral, Social and Legal Issues, 1st Edition: Robert Simon
  329. University Physics with Modern Physics, 15th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  330. The Heart of Yoga: Developing a Personal Practice, 2nd Edition: T. K. V. Desikachar
  331. Vertebrate Life, 10th Edition: F. Harvey Pough & Christine M. Janis
  332. Renewable Energy Resources, 3rd Edition: John Twidell & Tony Weir
  333. Neuroscience: Fundamentals for Rehabilitation, 5th Edition: Laurie Lundy-Ekman
  334. Advocacy in the Human Services, 1st Edition: Mark Ezell
  335. Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Multicultural Perspective, 7th Edition: Allen E. Ivey & Michael J. D′Andrea & Mary Bradford Ivey
  336. Principles of Corporate Finance, 10th Edition: Brealey & Myers & Allen
  337. Introduction to Law for Paralegals: A Critical Thinking Approach, 7th Edition: Katherine A. Currier & Thomas E. Eimermann
  338. Leading in a Culture of Change Personal Action Guide and Workbook: Michael Fullan
  339. The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management, 4th Edition: Eric Verzuh
  340. Health Informatics: An Interprofessional Approach, 2nd Edition: Ramona Nelson & Nancy Staggers
  341. Lifespan Development in Context: A Topical Approach, 1st Edition: Tara L. Kuther
  342. Sport Mechanics for Coaches, 3rd Edition: Brendan Burkett
  343. The Elements of Journalism, Revised and Updated 3rd Edition: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect: Bill Kovach & Tom Rosenstiel
  344. Hands-On Design Patterns with Java, 1st Edition: Edward Lavieri
  345. Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology, 4th Edition: Allan Ludman & Stephen Marshak
  346. Absolute, Ultimate Guide to Principles of Biochemistry Study Guide and Solutions Manual, 7th Edition: David L. Nelson & Michael M. Cox
  347. Control Systems Engineering, 8th Edition: Norman S. Nise
  348. Crafting the InfoSec Playbook: Security Monitoring and Incident Response Master Plan, 1st Edition: Jeff Bollinger & Brandon Enright & Matthew Valites
  349. First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CS, 6th Edition: Tao Le & Vikas Bhushan
  350. Android Programming Concepts, Pap/Psc Edition: Trish Cornez & Richard Cornez
  351. Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual, 12th Edition: James G. Cappuccino & Chad T. Welsh
submitted by TailExpert to CollegeTextbook [link] [comments]

ECDSA In Bitcoin

Digital signatures are considered the foundation of online sovereignty. The advent of public-key cryptography in 1976 paved the way for the creation of a global communications tool – the Internet, and a completely new form of money – Bitcoin. Although the fundamental properties of public-key cryptography have not changed much since then, dozens of different open-source digital signature schemes are now available to cryptographers.

How ECDSA was incorporated into Bitcoin

When Satoshi Nakamoto, a mystical founder of the first crypto, started working on Bitcoin, one of the key points was to select the signature schemes for an open and public financial system. The requirements were clear. An algorithm should have been widely used, understandable, safe enough, easy, and, what is more important, open-sourced.
Of all the options available at that time, he chose the one that met these criteria: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, or ECDSA.
At that time, native support for ECDSA was provided in OpenSSL, an open set of encryption tools developed by experienced cipher banks in order to increase the confidentiality of online communications. Compared to other popular schemes, ECDSA had such advantages as:
These are extremely useful features for digital money. At the same time, it provides a proportional level of security: for example, a 256-bit ECDSA key has the same level of security as a 3072-bit RSA key (Rivest, Shamir и Adleman) with a significantly smaller key size.

Basic principles of ECDSA

ECDSA is a process that uses elliptic curves and finite fields to “sign” data in such a way that third parties can easily verify the authenticity of the signature, but the signer himself reserves the exclusive opportunity to create signatures. In the case of Bitcoin, the “data” that is signed is a transaction that transfers ownership of bitcoins.
ECDSA has two separate procedures for signing and verifying. Each procedure is an algorithm consisting of several arithmetic operations. The signature algorithm uses the private key, and the verification algorithm uses only the public key.
To use ECDSA, such protocol as Bitcoin must fix a set of parameters for the elliptic curve and its finite field, so that all users of the protocol know and apply these parameters. Otherwise, everyone will solve their own equations, which will not converge with each other, and they will never agree on anything.
For all these parameters, Bitcoin uses very, very large (well, awesomely incredibly huge) numbers. It is important. In fact, all practical applications of ECDSA use huge numbers. After all, the security of this algorithm relies on the fact that these values are too large to pick up a key with a simple brute force. The 384-bit ECDSA key is considered safe enough for the NSA's most secretive government service (USA).

Replacement of ECDSA

Thanks to the hard work done by Peter Wuille (a famous cryptography specialist) and his colleagues on an improved elliptical curve called secp256k1, Bitcoin's ECDSA has become even faster and more efficient. However, ECDSA still has some shortcomings, which can serve as a sufficient basis for its complete replacement. After several years of research and experimentation, a new signature scheme was established to increase the confidentiality and efficiency of Bitcoin transactions: Schnorr's digital signature scheme.
Schnorr's signature takes the process of using “keys” to a new level. It takes only 64 bytes when it gets into the block, which reduces the space occupied by transactions by 4%. Since transactions with the Schnorr signature are the same size, this makes it possible to pre-calculate the total size of the part of the block that contains such signatures. A preliminary calculation of the block size is the key to its safe increase in the future.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
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[Part - 30] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

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  180. Communication in a Civil Society
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